2007-10-30 20:31:13
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??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????, ????????? ????????, "????" ??? "?????". ? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????? "soft drink".

??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????-?????\Judith Jango-Cohen, ????? "??????? ???. ?????????? ???????????"\The History Of Food (Major Inventions Through History) ????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? 18 ????, ????? ? ??????? (?? ??????? ? ??????) ????????? ????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????, ? ?? ? ??????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????: ? 1784 ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? (?? ????????? ????). ? 1833 ???? ? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? (???????? ??????? lemonade - ??? ??? ? ?????????? ?? ????? lemon\"?????").

???? ?????\John Riley, ????? ????????????? ????? "??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????\Organization in the soft drink industry: A history of the American Bottlers of Carbonated Beverages, ??????? ??????????????? ? 1946 ????, ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????: ? 1871 ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? - ??????? ? ??? (? ? ????) ???? ???????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? - ?? ????????? "??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???"\Lemon's Superior Sparkling Ginger Ale.

??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????? ?????????????? ???? ???? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ? 1875 ???? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????\Charles Hires ???????????? ? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? - ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? "???????? ????"\root beer (?? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????).

? 1886 ???? ??????? ???? ???????? ? ??????? ? ???? ???????????? - Coca-Cola ? Dr. Pepper. ?????????? Coca-Cola ????????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ????, ???????? ???? ?????????\John Pemberton ???????? ?????? ??????, ???????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????. ?????? ?????????????? ????, ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ????: ? ?????? ???, ?? ???? ??????? "????", ??????? ???????? $25, ? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????? $75.

??????? ???????????? ????Dr. Pepper ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? (??? ????? ???? ????????\Wade Morrison) ? ?????? (?????? ???????\Robert Lazenby). Dr. Pepper, ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????, ?????? ??????????? ? ?????? (? ?????? ????, ???? ?????), ???????? ??? ??? ???????? "?????? ???????? ??? ???????"\King of Beverages, Free from Caffeine" (?????? ??? ???????? ???????). ?? ???????, ???????? Dr. Pepper - "?????? ??????" ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????.

? 1898 ???? ????????? Pepsi-Cola (?? ????????? ???????, ?????????? - ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????), ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????\Caleb Bradham, ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????, ??????? ? ????????????? ?????. ? ?????? 20-?? ???? ????????? ? ???? ???????, ??????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ????????? - Royal-Crown Cola ? Canada Dry Ginger Ale. ? 1906 ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? - Clicquot Club Ginger Ale, ??????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? "????? ?????".

??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????. ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? - ???????? ???? ??????? ??????. ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????. ?????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???? ?????, ??????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????. ???? ???????????\Mark Pendergrast, ????? ????? "?? ????, ?????? ? "????-????"\For God, Country, and Coca-Cola: The Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and the Company That Makes It, ????????, ??? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ? ???????, ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? "?????".

?????? ??????????\James Samuelson, ????? ????? "??????? ???????"\The History of Drink, ????????, ??? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? "????? ?????" - ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ? ??? ? 1920-1933 ????. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????.

? 1929 ???? ? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????? "??????? ?????????", ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ???????????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???????. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????. ? ??? ?? 1929 ???? ??? ????????? ??????? Lithiated Lemon, ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? 7Up. ????? ????????? "?????? ??????" ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? - ????????? ????? ???? 7Up ??????? ???????? ??????? ????. ? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????? ????????????: ??? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???? (???????, ? 1922 ????, ??? ??????? Coca-Cola), ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? (?? ????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ????? ??????, ?? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????, ???? ????? ??????? ?????), ? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? (???????).

??????? ???????????? ????1950-? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? - ????????? "????????" ????????. ??????, ?????????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???????, ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????????. ? 1952 ???? ????????? ???-???????? ???????? Kirsch Beverages ????????? ?????? ???????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? - No-Cal Ginger Ale (? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????). ? 1962 ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? Diet-Rite Cola (????????????? Royal Crown Company), ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????????. ? 1963 ???? ????????? Coca-Cola Tab, ? ? 1965 ???? - Diet Pepsi. ??????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ? ???? ??????. ? 1980-? ???? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? (???????????? ??? ?????? Nutra-Sweet), ? ? ????? 1990-? ????? - ????????? (????????? ??? ?????? Splenda). ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ? ???? ????? - ???????? Coca-Cola Co ? PepsiCo, ? ????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? - ????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ???????, ???? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????.

? 1960 ???? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? - "??????????". ???????? ???? Gatorade, ????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ???????\University of Florida ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ???????? Gator. ???? ? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????, ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????????, ???????, ??? ??????????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????.

??????? ???????????? ????? 1980-? ???? ????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???, ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????? - ????????, ?????, ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????.

???????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? - ?? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ???? ?????, ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? (????????, ??? ? ????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????, ??? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? - ????? ?????? ????????, ? ?????????, Jolt Cola ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????). ? 1990-? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? - "?????????????? ???????" (???????? ???? Red Bull), ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????.

? 1990-? ???? ? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????????: ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? (????? ?????? ????? ???? Nantucket Nectars, ???????????? ??????????? ??????), ? ????? ????? "???????????" ???????? ?? ?????? ???, ????, ??????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????.

??? ?? ?????, ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????\American Beverage Association, ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? 73% ?? ?????? ?????? ??????, ?? ?????? ????? - ?????????????? ??????? ??????? (13,7%), ?? ??????? - ?????????????? ???? (13,2%).

???? ?????? ? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????, ? ??????? ???????? ????? 200 ???. ???????. ?? ??????? ?????????????? ????? American Economics Group, ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??? ????? 3 ???. ???????, ????? ????? ????? ????????? $278 ????. ? ???.


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